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A Description of Some Graphic Design Products

Graphic communication media such as calendars, postage stamps, pennants, buntings and flags are utilised in our daily activities as a people, society or nation. It is now a popular feature of ceremonies and events like weddings, festivals, Independence Day and others to design calendars, buntings to mark the occasion or event. Thus, graphic artists need to know how these products are like in the realms of art so that it will ease their pain when such a project is assigned or offered to them by instructors and clients.


A calendar is a well designed one-page or multiple paged paper pieces used to organize days for societal use. It usually has a chart showing a year divided into months, weeks and days.
Various institutions and associations have designed their own calendars which are mostly given to clients and other members of the general public as a way of broadcasting the activities of the institution. Calendars of this nature bear the name of the company, the logo and the popular trademark of the company. The arrangements of the months should be sequenced so that gleaning of information from it will be very easy. The colours used should be harmonious and the typography style must be legible. If an illustration couples the text, it shouldn’t be distractive neither should it be ambiguous. It must be descriptive of the activities of the company.

Postage Stamp

This is a carefully designed paper piece usually in small dimension that is affixed on a letter or document to be mailed as a proof of payment of the mail. The amount or fee is inscribed on it as well as the country of origin. Mostly, there are illustrations on postage stamps that depict the culture of the country of origin. For instance, a postage stamp from Ghana may depict pictures of interesting sites in Ghana such as the independence square, national flag, Kakum national park, picture of the present and past presidents, abundant natural resources in the country etc. The backs of postage stamps are glued so that it can be affixed on letters.

It is a miniature flag usually shaped like a triangle or pentagon with designed text, logo, emblem or symbol of a group or association. They have several functions such as identification, decoration, signaling, education and advertising. It is usually exchanged as a sign of greeting or as a sign of goodwill. It is offered to people as a souvenir item.


These are colourful small flags joined together with a string and hanged along streets during festive occasions or hanged along the interiors of church buildings during festive occasions such as Christmas, Easter, and Weddings etc. The colours of the flags must symbolically agree with the event. Sometimes, artists cleverly choose colours that harmonizes with the attire the couple holding the wedding feast would wear. This implies that, artists who are offered such projects must carefully think through and design the buntings so that the general appearance will be suitable for the occasion.


This is a decorative cloth with special colours, emblems or logos peculiar to a group, association, religious or political denomination or nation. The choice of colours, symbols or emblems do have symbolic or philosophical meanings that are linked to the ideologies, beliefs and values of the group, association or country.

How a Jury Impacts The Development of Graphic Artists

Jury involves a group of skilled artists meeting to appraise a finished layout or artifact and make constructive and creative suggestions for improvements. It is also a way of evaluating a graphic design work, especially if it is meant for competition, examination, campaign, commission, etc. In this sense, the jury gives a decision and award prizes or marks for the works. The elements of the work that merits the attention of the members of the jury board include the format and orientation of the paper, the placement of the text, headlines, illustration, harmony or colour contrast and visual appeal.

The jury system does not judge the suitability of a work or award marks based on the intuition of members. However, their weighed criticisms are based on some set criteria accepted for proficient productions in the area of graphic designing. These criteria have been explained below.

1. Creativity and originality showed by the artist

Members of the team look out for evidence of originality or uniqueness in the creation of the artist. They ask themselves that ‘What new thing has this artist brought on board?’ or ‘what has he added to that area of graphic designing which was not formerly there?’

2. Suitability of the work to its theme or objective

Usually, when a project work is assigned in the field of Graphic design, it comes with a subject. Such as ‘Produce a shopping bag to be used for buying a birthday present for a female friend.’ Therefore, the final work is assessed on this theme. The choice of design, colours, lettering style as well as the construction of the package must resonate with this subject. If the choice of the design does not correlate with birthday, or it is not feminine to be used by a female, then the objective for the production, was thus, not achieved.

3. Significance of colours and how they are used

Graphic artists exhibit their supreme knowledge of colour psychology and symbolism in their mastery selection of colours to suit the theme or occasion when it will be used. For instance, producing items for joyous occasions like Christmas calls for the use of gay or bright colours while products meant for solemn occasions such as funeral posters demands the use of somber colours like brown, red or black.

4. Technical proficiency or finishing

This refers to the dexterity of the artist shown in the usage and application of the tools and materials for production. Also, it seeks to judge the work based on the rubrics of the graphic communication tool designed. For instance, if the product is a poster, does it agree with the accepted standards of poster designing such as legibility and readability of text, clarity in the illustrations, and harmonies in the choice of colours? In addition, the final appearance must be aesthetically pleasing and attractive, giving no room for complaints by prospective clients.

5. Evidence of study (written report including introduction, tools, and materials used, processes, illustrations etc. used for the work)

This is important in projects meant for academic purposes such as the grading of students in the High school or at tertiary institutions. To vouch that the project was solely executed by the candidate, s/he has to describe the processes that were carried out to arrive at the final production in a written report. Moreover, it will furnish members of the jury information on the procedural steps, tools, and materials as well as finishing technique employed by the artist for the production.

A jury team is essential in the total skills development of both amateur and matured Graphic artists. The under listed points illustrate some of the benefits of a jury.

1. It helps in determining the criteria for qualification in a competition.
2. It sets the standard for grading works into excellent, very good, good, average etc.
3. It determines the suitability of text, illustration or colour to the aim or theme of the project.
4. It serves as a means of analyzing, criticizing and interpreting works.
5. It allows designers or competitors to interpret their works.
6. It assists in recommending the best works for prices or awards.
7. It encourages critical thinking.
8. It provides a variety of solutions to a pressing need.
9. It improves efficiency.
10. It builds the capacity for effective assessment.
11. It builds self-image and confidence.
12. It prepares the artist for the world of work.

Art Therapy Can Reduce Pain And Anxiety In Cancer Patients

A study published in the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management found that art therapy can reduce a broad spectrum of symptoms related to pain and anxiety in cancer patients. In the study done at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, cancer patients reported significant reductions in eight of nine symptoms measured by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) after spending an hour working on art projects of their choice.

Fifty patients from the inpatient oncology unit at Northwestern Memorial were enrolled in the study over a four-month period. The ESAS is a numeric scale allowing patients to assess their symptoms of pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, lack of appetite, well-being and shortness of breath. Eight of these nine symptoms improved; nausea was the only symptom that did not change as a result of the art therapy session.

“Cancer patients are increasingly turning to alternative and complementary therapies to reduce symptoms, improve quality of life and boost their ability to cope with stress,” says Judith Paice, PhD, RN, director, Cancer Pain Program, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, and an author on the study. “We wanted to see if the creative process involved in making art is healing and life-enhancing. Our study provides beginning evidence for the important role art therapy can play in reducing symptoms. Art therapy provides a distraction that allows patients to focus on something positive instead of their health for a time, and it also gives patients something they can control.”

Each art therapy session was individualized and patients were offered a choice of subject matter and media. When participants could not use their hands or were not comfortable using the art materials, the art therapist would do the art making under the direction of the subject or they could look at and discuss photographic images that were assembled into a book. Sessions ranged from light entertaining distraction to investigating deep psychological issues, says Nancy Nainis, MA, ATR, an art therapist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital, who is the lead author on the study. “We were especially surprised to find the reduction in ‘tiredness’,” says Ms. Nainis. “Several subjects made anecdotal comments that the art therapy had energized them. This is the first study to document a reduction in tiredness as a result of art therapy.”

“Art provides a vehicle for expression,” says Dr. Paice. “It may be preferential to some cancer patients who may be uncomfortable with conventional psychotherapy or those who find verbal expression difficult.”

Fine art in advertising can backfire

Throughout the ages, fine art has been accorded a special significance and recognized as a powerful communication tool. Art has been used to sell everything from products to politics to religion.

But art can be stripped of its special status if used carelessly by advertisers, according to a new study by researchers from Boston College and the University of Houston.

If the artwork is viewed as a product-relevant illustration, then consumers no longer view it as art. Suddenly, they can take a critical view of its message, according to the new study, which will appear in a forthcoming issue of the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

“Art is valued for its own sake,” said Henrik Hagtvedt, a marketing professor in the Carroll School of Management at Boston College. “If brands are associated with art in a tasteful way, consumers will accept and even appreciate it. But as soon as the artwork is viewed as a mere product-relevant illustration, it is demoted to the status of any other ordinary image.”

Art may thus lose its unique powers of communication, Hagtvedt and colleague Vanessa M. Patrick, a professor of marketing of the University of Houston, found in three experiments in which art was presented on product labels and in advertisements.

One study conducted by Hagtvedt and Patrick involved a wine tasting at a bar. While tasting, the patrons also inspected the wine labels, which featured paintings by the French artist Renoir. For some customers, the bartender had been coached to comment that the bottle labels featured paintings. People who tasted these wines judged them all favorably.

For others, the bartender casually mentioned that the same wine label paintings depicted people. The patrons still judged the wine favorably if the label featured what seemed like an appropriate image, such as guests at a luncheon. But the same wine in a bottle labeled with an out-of-place image, such as a woman and child playing with toys, was received less favorably.

The findings reveal not only that wine labels can influence how wine tastes to consumers, but also that it matters how those consumers perceive the labels. Art causes wine to taste good, but only as long as it retains its status as art. This demonstrates some of the limits marketers face when using fine art to pitch their products.

“When people view an image as an artwork, it communicates as art and it doesn’t matter whether the content fits,” said Hagtvedt. “But when they start to focus on the content of the image, such as the people or their activities, then it becomes a product illustration and consumers begin to weigh whether it fits or not.”

Two other experiments, in the context of advertising for soap or nail salons, replicated the pattern of results. Different images caused different product evaluations, but if the images were viewed as artworks rather than illustrations, then the products tended to be viewed in an equally favorable light.

The researchers suggest the responses reflect how humans have evolved to recognize and appreciate art as a special category of expression.

“People have evolved to care about art,” said Hagtvedt. “It is something we have appreciated in all societies known to man, throughout history and pre-history. It is also a magnificent tool for marketers who rely on its communicative power in a thoughtful and honest manner, but those who use it thoughtlessly are not likely to impress anyone.”

Mobile media, visual art making boost school engagement

Keeping teens focused on what’s happening in class rather than their electronic device is a tall order, given that 73 per cent of them have access to a smartphone — and most would prefer to be on Instagram than at school. But what if making, sharing, liking and commenting on photos was part of the curriculum instead of a forbidden activity?

A group of Concordia researchers recently put that idea to the test, and found that using mobile media and image making is a great way to get young adults… 1. Engaged with their schooling, 2. Connected to their classmates, 3. Active in their communities, 4. Equipped to express their identities.

1. Engaging youth

“Our initial goal was to create a curriculum that would encourage civic engagement among at-risk youth to address the significant and persistent problem of high school drop-out rates in Quebec and North America,” says art education professor Juan Carlos Castro, the project’s principal investigator.

“What we found is that engaging youth is a multi-faceted and nuanced endeavour. In four recent publications, we examine how youth are empowered by a sense of autonomy over their mobility, learning how to make images, presenting aspects of themselves online, and curriculum designed to support peer-learning.”

2. Connecting online — and in person

Castro and his colleagues developed a mobile media art curriculum, named MonCoin — meaning My Corner in English — for engaging students with their schooling and their local environment. To do so, they conducted a study with a group of young adults between the ages of 16 and 20 who had previously dropped out and who were now working towards their high school diplomas at an adult education centre near Montreal.

Participants were loaned an iPod Touch and took part in a semi-private Instagram group in which they could communicate with each other, see each other’s photos, share images and comment on what they saw.

The curriculum encouraged participants to use mobile media in school and out. The main activity was to take photographs that responded to the question, “How would I make this neighbourhood better?”

“We thought that delivering the curriculum through the mobile devices of youth who did not want to be in school would keep them connected to their education. But we were surprised to find that the more students connected with each other online, the more they wanted to gather together at school and on field trips with their peers,” says Castro, who recently published this finding in Studies in Art Education.

3. From image making to civic action

The researchers also saw that the young participants did not feel empowered by following the MonCoin curriculum. Instead, they felt a diminished sense of agency.

The students eventually voiced their concerns and made it clear that learning the skills to best express themselves visually was more important to them than participating in a social critique.

“It really surprised us to see that participants were first of all concerned with technical and aesthetic issues related to image making, which then led many of them to consider issues related to civic engagement.

“While they were making photos of their neighbourhoods, participants began to note the physical and psychological shortcomings of their environment — not the other way around,” says Castro, who along with David Pariser and PhD candidate Martin Lalonde recently published the findings in the International Journal of Education through Art.

4. The importance of identity

In the team’s third publication in the journal Visual Art Research, Lalonde identified that a critical part of learning online is the development of one’s identity through the creation, sharing and curating of images.

Because online dialogue and commentary was encouraged, the students also developed a sense of community and learned to value the diverse opinions and points of view that stood behind the images that their peers posted.

In the fourth recent publication in the journal of Art Education, PhD candidate Ehsan Akbari with recent MA in Art Education graduate Lina Moreno, outlined the mobile media curricula used in the ongoing study to amplify peer-learning and educational engagement.

For Castro and his co-authors, who are among the only researchers in North America doing work around visual art, mobile and social media and youth engagement, these results have important implications.

Theater arts research offers insight for designers, builders of social robots

Einstein said that we can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking used when we created them. Wise words, except few people heed them when it comes to sustainable solutions for our ailing planet. Despite decades of scientific research into everything from air pollution to species extinction, individuals are slow to act because their passions are not being ignited.


For Paul Shrivastava, the Director of the David O’Brien Centre for Sustainable Enterprise at Concordia University’s John Molson School of Business (JMSB), combining science with the arts will bring about the passionate implementation of sustainable development. “No significant human endeavour has ever been accomplished without passion. Science and technology by themselves aren’t enough. We need to turn to the arts in order to infuse passion into the pursuit of sustainability and get real results that will heal the planet,” he says.

In a forthcoming article in the International Journal of Technology Management, co-authored by colleagues from the University of Lorraine and the ICN Business School in Nancy, France, Shrivastava argues that art is a survival instinct. “Narratives, stories, music and images served to warn our early ancestors against predators and natural disasters. Art helped them develop defence mechanisms. My colleagues and I believe that art should be used to deal with modern survival threats such as climate change and environmental crises.”

This is an idea that the corporate world would be wise to take into account. Sustainable organizations need the arts to enhance employee creativity and innovation, attract creative workers, improve worker satisfaction, as well as design eco-friendly and innovative products and services. Indeed, the arts influence the sustainability of companies through architecture, aesthetics of workspaces, design of products and services, graphic art in advertising, and arts-based training methods.

Here in Montreal, that attitude is becoming a reality. Best-selling author Richard Florida wrote in 2008 that Montreal is well positioned not just to weather the economic storm but also to flourish in the long run because of its widespread creative class. “Nearly a fifth of the Montreal region’s workforce forms a super-creative,” writes Florida. This means that Montreal has “underlying economic and social capacities which, if properly harnessed, will position [it to] serve as a model for other regions in Canada.”

Shrivastava hopes that model will be quick to spread. “We’ve spent decades relying on science and technology and the planet is still in shambles. Art allows fresh perspectives and new ways interpreting the world. In Montreal and beyond, art is what will make us give up our old habits in favour of planet-changing behaviour.”

Music and the arts fight depression, promote health

If you paint, dance or play a musical instrument — or just enjoy going to the theatre or to concerts — it’s likely that you feel healthier and are less depressed than people who don’t, a survey of nearly 50,000 individuals from all socio-economic backgrounds from a county in mid-Norway shows.

The findings are drawn from the latest round of studies conducted for the Norwegian University of Science and Technology’s (NTNU) Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, or HUNT, which used questionnaires, interviews, clinical examinations and the collection of blood and urine samples to assemble detailed health profiles of 48,289 participants.

“There is a positive relationship between cultural participation and self-perceived health for both women and men, “says Professor Jostein Holmen, a HUNT researcher who presented the findings, which have not yet been published, at a Norwegian health conference in Stjørdal in late November. “For men, there is also a positive relationship between cultural participation and depression, in that there is less depression among men who participate in cultural activities, although this is not true for women.”

But what surprised the medical researcher was that these findings held true no matter the individual’s socio-economic status — whether truck driver or bank president, participating in some way in the arts, theatre or music, as player or participant, had a positive effect on that individual’s sense of health and well-being.

The new findings were controlled for socioeconomic status, chronic illness, social capital, smoking and alcohol. However, Holmen also reported that the same sense of well-being in people who participate in cultural activities that seemed to protect them from depression did not appear to have the same beneficial effect on anxiety.

Holmen cautioned that the association between health and cultural activities is not strong enough to enable him to say that culture actually makes people healthy. Nevertheless, the researcher says the findings ought to challenge politicians to think differently about health. Steinar Krokstad, HUNT’s director and an associate professor at NTNU, agreed.

“We in the health services do not always have control over the most effective preventive tools given the range of today’s illnesses. We need to increasingly focus on opportunities rather than on risk,” Krokstad said.

Professor creates video games that redefine art

For UCLA design media arts professor Eddo Stern, video games aren’t “just games.”

They’re platforms to question our assumptions about human relationships, our understanding of violence, even our definition of reality.

“So I just exchanged three texts with someone. Does that constitute knowing them?” Stern asked. Which relationship is stronger? One you have with someone you’ve never met, but with whom you have spent 700 hours playing a game online? Or one you have with someone you consider a good friend, but with whom you’ve spent less time?

“Most of my work is focused on real experience versus virtual experience,” Stern said. A lifelong game player, Stern compensated for his “very poor sense of direction” in real life by playing one of his favorite computer games, “Everquest,” as a character with expert tracking abilities.

“It’s very ironic that the person with the least sort of ability as a navigator is playing a character with the most,” he said. “This made me aware of the relationship between your real personal attributes and your virtual attributes. It’s a philosophical question of what does ‘real’ mean?”

Stern, 43, was born in Israel in 1972 and grew up in a family of engineers and artists. He started writing computer programs in grade school on his family’s Apple II Plus and grew up playing all sorts of computer games. After finishing his mandatory military service in Israel , he enrolled at UC Santa Cruz in 1993.

Being in Santa Cruz at that time offered Stern proximity to the burgeoning Bay Area tech scene. He ran the server for a pre-Napster online music service called the Internet Underground Music Archive and, through his art classes, worked with some of the earliest interactivity computer programs like Director and HyperCard.

At UC Santa Cruz, he took a course by Donna Haraway that taught the importance of “political and techno-scientific literacy” and which brought together students studying science and engineering with their counterparts majoring in the humanities and social sciences. This class ultimately influenced him to stay a few extra years to design his own major, combining philosophy, math and computer science. “Those parallel paths of contemporary philosophical theory and media arts — they were newer fields of inquiry,” he said. “It was invigorating.”

Eventually Stern decided to pursue graduate studies at California Institute of the Arts in Valencia because it offered a rigorous art curriculum and cutting-edge, new-media opportunities. He later taught there as well.

After graduate school, Stern was drawn to video game design and creation (focusing not just on software but also on the games’ controllers) because it seemed to be the best arena to explore his ideas about art, technology and how the intersection of the two influence and reflect society. Eager to experiment, he has spent most of his career working in the independent gaming world.

One trope Stern turns on its head is that there’s no physical dimension to playing video games.

“A lot of games deny the body; sitting on a couch, you sort of disappear, and I am critical of ‘immersion’ in that sense,” Stern said. “I’m interested in subverting immersion, snapping you out of it.”

In the latest incarnation of his game, “Darkgame,” Stern blows up that couch-potato stereotype and also the nearly universal video game construct of “the longer one plays a game, the stronger one’s character becomes.”

As a “Darkgame” player, you begin by looking at your game avatar — a small black sphere orbited by six clusters of organs and body parts. These red blood drops, cream-colored hands and white eyeballs, among other images, represent both the player’s and the avatar’s attributes. You’re also wearing headgear that looks a bit like an octopus, with each arm containing a small motor that applies pressure for tactile feedback to your head.

The ultimate goal is survival, and to achieve it, you’re constantly choosing how to balance which attributes you want to increase versus what abilities you’re willing to sacrifice, thus balancing the survival or your avatar with your own ability to experience the game through your senses.

“‘It’s really hard to get excited about videogames (sic) once you’ve experienced Eddo Stern’s performative play,” wrote Matteo Bittanti, editor of the website, which explores how video games have redefined art. “Unclassifiable, avant-garde, truly immersive, ‘Darkgame’ is the pinnacle of art gaming,”

The other thing that drew Stern to games is their potential to examine people’s relationships with violence. Stern served in the Israeli Air Force during the first Gulf War in the early ’90s.

“It was a very disembodied war experience,” said Stern, referring to how news stations played up airstrikes and missile attacks far more than ground combat, “even in Israel where we’re used to a very on-the-ground, infantry-centric narrative of war. It certainly has a very close connection to video games — the obsession around violent acts without direct consequence.”

Multi-player, online games can provide the player with social and emotional experiences, Stern said. While the computer character looking at you on the screen doesn’t mean much on the surface level, that character is a stand-in for a real person who is remembering how you played — and whether you cheated.

“Now part of your identity is formed in a social space,” Stern said.

Since coming to UCLA in 2008, he has directed UCLA GameLab. “What I teach is experimentation and skepticism of the status quo, skepticism of the mainstream industry and what it has already produced,” said Stern, who is critical of how the industry divides the roles of engineer, artist, game designer, producer and writer.

In one of his classes, Stern, who is on the executive committee for UCLA’s Institute for Digital Research and Education Humanities, Arts, Architecture, Social and Information Collaborative, has his students create a polemical game as a capstone, with the one stipulation that it have a subjective point of view.

Students’ projects have run the gamut from games that poke fun at people’s obsession with coconuts to others that advocate for and against gun control, play off of stereotypes and make a player deal with a bad roommate. Stern wants his students to think of using games as a medium to make artistic statements about their ideas and worlds.

“A lot of the enthusiasm about games in academia is focused on their use value — the focus is often on how games are good for society because games can teach and are not just frivolous entertainment,” Stern said. “I’m not interested in championing that perspective which I see as instrumentalizing games, but rather a broader view of games as a creative medium that can be as rich as the written word or moving image.”

Arts programming may help lower stress in economically disadvantaged preschoolers

Previous research has determined that poverty can harm children’s educational, social-emotional, and physical health, in part by damaging the bodily systems that respond to the chronically high levels of stress that children in poverty are more likely to experience. A new study has found that intensive arts programs — music, dance, and visual arts — may address this phenomenon by lowering the stress levels of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, as measured through cortisol.


The study, by scientists at West Chester University and the University of Delaware, appears in the journal Child Development.

“Our study is the first we know of that demonstrates that the arts may help alleviate the impact of poverty on children’s physiological functioning,” notes Eleanor Brown, professor of psychology and director of the Early Childhood Cognition and Emotions Lab (ECCEL) at West Chester University, who was the study’s primary investigator.

Researchers looked at 310 economically disadvantaged 3- to 5-year-olds attending a Head Start preschool program in Philadelphia that serves children from a range of racial and ethnic backgrounds. While all Head Start programs have some arts programming, this program — Settlement Music School’s Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts Enrichment Program — is unique in that it fully incorporates arts into the curriculum. Children have multiple arts classes each day and these are taught in fully equipped studios by credentialed artteachers. The arts classes are used not only to develop children’s artistic skills but also to promote learning in core early childhood domains like language, literacy, and math.

The study randomly assigned preschoolers by classroom to different types and numbers of arts classes. Researchers measured cortisol levels by analyzing 7,000 samples of children’s saliva; samples were collected at morning baseline, and after arts and homeroom classes on two different days at the start, middle, and end of the school year.

The researchers found that cortisol levels were lower after arts classes than after homeroom, suggesting that taking part in arts programming helped reduce the stress levels of these children.

“The study has important implications,” says Brown. “In an ideal world, no child would grow up in poverty. Working toward this ideal requires attention to not only economic inequities but also to the many related inequities that harm children who grow up poor and to the opportunities for disrupting the strong predictive relationship between poverty and negative outcomes. This study demonstrates that a nonmonetary intervention can reduce cortisol levels. In this case, the intervention is the arts.”

Researchers saw these positive effects at the middle and end of the year, but not at the start of the school year. “The physiological benefits of arts programming may not be seen when children are first exposed,” explains Mallory Garnett, research coordinator at ECCEL, who also worked on the study. “The benefits may depend on children adjusting to the classes and accumulating skills from the programming.”

Adds Dr. Brown: “Our study is notable in rigorously demonstrating that arts programs of high intensity can reduce cortisol levels. This study sets the stage for further investigation regarding the arts as a vehicle for promoting well-being among children from disadvantaged families.”